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Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted.There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea () was adopted as the legal name for the new country.Koreans developed improved versions of many advanced innovations such as the metal movable type printing press, which used to print and publish the Jikji, the world's oldest extant movable metal type printed paper book in 1377.In the 15th century, Koreans had one of the highest living standards in the world, and Sejong the Great invented Hangul to promote literacy amongst the general Korean population, enabling anyone to easily learn to read and write and transfer written information rather than spend years in learning complicated Hanja.Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era.In 108 BC, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula.The name Daehan, which means "great Han" literally, derives from Samhan (Three Hans).

During the period known as the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, the states of Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and Samhan occupied the Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria.Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time.Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River.From them, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla emerged to control the peninsula as the Three Kingdoms of Korea.Goguryeo, the largest and most powerful among them, was a highly militaristic state, Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage.

During the period known as the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, the states of Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and Samhan occupied the Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria.

Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time.

Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River.

From them, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla emerged to control the peninsula as the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Goguryeo, the largest and most powerful among them, was a highly militaristic state, Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage.

The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically.